Modern Constellations, Speculation about Ancient European Constellations, Anieth Stars
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These two constellations are equatorial marker constellations since they are directly opposite each other on the Zodiac belt. I have tied in mythology of animals, star legends of the world, other mythology that is most likely stellar in origin, and some common sense to speculate about what were the ancient constellations of Europe. Not much material remains and that that does was replaced by Greek and Persian lore.
You can see from the following images that chart the rising and setting of these stars through the year that when one shows, the other is occluded by the sun, thus giving rise to all kinds of legends about summer and winter. I believe that the Ragnarok legends were calendar legends inspired by these two constellations in particular.
You must realize that, for the ancients, the constellation is a mnemonic, or a way to remember the star's position in the sky. The stars were the important piece of information. Marker stones pointed to the star, not in a general way to the constellation. Thus, it is possible to track information about the star and match a likely animal as a constellation. This becomes very important among ancient mages who used correspondence as a way to memorize huge amounts of data. The animals were tied to trees and rocks and letters and a host of other corresponding things. This gives rise to phrases like "plant ogham" or "bird ogham" which were the letters tied to corresponding plants or birds.
Peter Shields and Alexei Greshenko spent years hammering out linguistic correspondences and matched these to what they already knew of the lore of ogham (a Celtic alphabet) and other lore of the Vikings and Celts and more ancient peoples. I've included a twenty-fold correspondence map to show you a bit of their work.
Here again is the stellar match between Europe and Anieth
Here are two more charts showing when these stars are visible in the night skies of the time of the great building of stellar monuments.