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This is an old article that refers to the first book published. There will be more recent articles, this one is for historical purposes.




Arthur Rackam, MacMillian and Co., 1918

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Fairy Tale Correspondences

The object in writing this books was, not only to make them "feel" real on a level at which people recognize symbols in Fantasy, but to also make them work on several different levels. Symbols and correspondences work in these books from the very gross to the petty. My interest was to write the same story over and over again in many different ways.

The first book in the Anieth series was inspired by a series of Fairy Tale images. Each section was loosely based on a separate tale or couple of tales. The first section, Faol, the wolf, ties into a kind of story in which the hero/heroine gets lost in the wood. This is not so much a tale unto itself, as it is an image that repeats itself in many different tales where the prince/princess is forced to leave their home and then gets lost in the wood. In my story, the witch (Bán Eilit) banishes Kileen from her home and Faol chases her into the wood. With this simple imagery, the story is known to be a psychological tale with an initiate who will then have to explore the wood and the wood inside (her mind) and find a way out again as an accomplished magician.

In the mirror story, Kileen is chased back out of the wood by Faol in a domesticated form. This part of the story is the traditional tale where the princess is found in the wood by the prince and is brought to the castle. In the tale "The Seven Swans", the princess is forbidden to speak and is condemned for being a witch. In many tales, the princess must be "skinned" or shot down in animal form to bring her back to her human form. In "the Firebird" the princess is caught stealing from the princes's father's garden. He catches her in her bird form and forces her to transform. She bargains for her freedom. In most enchanted beast stories, once it is known that the animal is actually a human under enchantment, the animal/prince or princess is always lost and must be recovered. Also seen in this section is a scene from "The Birch Bride" where the Cinderella princess appeals to the spirit of her mother in the form of a birch tree. Kileen is told by the spirit of her mother, in the form of Luaith, that her journey is not to be queen, but a shaman's journey into the unexplored self.

Ivanwich In the second section, the initiate image is reinforced with the journey upriver, carried by the salmon, Bradán. There are numerous tales about eating a salmon's flesh to be able to understand the language of animals. In many Russian tales, the prince rescues a salmon by throwing it back into the river and thus earns some magical token from the fish or receives a favor. Kileen's story is a story about an initiate who keeps refusing power. In this part of the book, she denies eating the fish, instead throws (dumps) him back into the river. Her reward is to be dragged upstream in a drowning episode where first she is drowned by the witch and then by the salmon. By denying the flesh of the one who gives knowledge, she must accept the harder road of drowning in the element of which the animal has knowledge.

The other story in the section section of the forest story is that of "The Bushy Bride" where the princess is confronted by three men who demand favors and then bestow blessings upon the princess such as "whenever she opens her mouth out will fall gold". The three gross heads in the water signify the three levels of animal appetites which must be passed in order to become an adult. The first is oral, the second is anal, and the third is verbal. Always in this kind of tale the princess is blessed with beauty, grace, and some verbal ability such as gold falling from her speech. In my story, it is further emphasized that the journey is a mystical one because there are four heads.

Bushy Bride The initiate is not required to become an adult but to pass beyond that into the realm of the spiritual. In particular, Kileen is not set up to become the wife of a king, yet is asked to become a queen in her own right. However, the call to rule is only a ruse as evidenced by the nature of the riddles that are asked by the Hazel mystics. The fourth head is the sexual head of social acceptance as an adult. Again, Kileen complies with the favors asked by the men, yet she is unable to answer the riddles. They free her from her prison on the island, yet they cannot bestow "favors" upon her.

In the mirror story, the tale becomes that of Rapunzel and other "hair cutting" stories. In Fairy Tales and Myths, the hair is a sign of strength or integrity. Kileen is faced again with the Four Appetites in the form of Sorcha (oral), LiHara (anal), Manwen (verbal), and Korutos (sexual). She denies Sorcha food. She denies fixing LiHara's hair. She declines to sing for Manwen and she does not kiss Korutos. With each denial, she passes further out into the world and is finally dragged back into the water. Instead of continuing on her psychological journey, she is cut loose from the magus by the cutting of her hair. The main point of this hair cutting is that Korutos does not keep hold of her hair. In "Rapunzel" the witch gets the hair to try to deceive and kill the prince. Bán Eilit is seen later with Kileen's hair and deceives the prince in all three forms, Runion, Manwen, and Korutos.

The third section, Verres, or the boar, is the story of love thwarted. This is the story of "Tam Lin" where the prince gets taken to another world or the story of "East of the Sun, West of the Moon" where the animal groom is spirited away because the princess disobeys an injunction. In all these groom vanishes stories, the princess has to perform three impossible tasks in order to rescue her lover. Because, in Verres, Kileen has fallen a level (see next section) she does not perform four tasks for spiritual guidance, but three tasks for sexual freedom.

Enchanted Pig Yet, because it is still a spiritual story, the three tasks are anal, verbal, and sexual, the oral being dropped. She must make some kind of decoration or protective covering, she must make some kind of story, and she must make a child. The impossiblity is in being denied the normal mode to perform these tasks. She is asked by the Mother Ash, a figure that appears in many Northern tales, to become an artist, to win back her lover through creativity and not an act of strength, endurance, or wit as in answering a riddle. This again tells the reader that the story is not a love story where the end of the tale is in the recovery of the animal groom. The goal of the story is revealed as the removal of a creative block.

In the mirror story, the tale alluded to is the Race story in which the princess will concede to be the bride of the man who can beat her in a race. Atlanta is a familiar figure in this kind of story which is also popular in Gaelic literature. The irony of this race is that the real winner, Verres, is denied his bride when Korutos kills him. Although there are three forms of the prince involved, Manwen forfeits his part in the race as the mind, Runion actually races yet loses as his part as the body, and Korutos has to be the one to "kill" the winner. Yet, Kileen, determined as always to deny each level, denies Korutos as the heart, denies her part as the victorious queen, and must slip down to the next level. Again, Sorcha's death reinforces the loss of a level, yet the fact that she is the one who dies alludes to the nature of the loss, that Kileen is being cut down from two directions at once.

Fiach, the raven, is the animal of the fourth section of the book. In the forest, his story mimics fragments of other stories. The dance for his father's bones is a common image, both in the quest for a magician's bones and in a quest for the "head" of the father, or in most cases, the crown. The arrival of the Hawthorn is another story fragment where a maid of flowers and no heart steals the attention of the men in the story. The Burning of the May is a perverse look at May Pole celebrations. In many cultures an effigy of winter was burned at spring or the onset of winter, yet most Jack in the Green images or May images were drowned as rain charms. The second, or anal level in the book has been symbolized by allusions to body decoration or hygene, so to burn Kileen's image is a way of saying that she has lost another level as she falls down into level two with the loss of form. In this section she combs Fiach's hair whereas in the previous they ate together. The buring of Fiach's hair is a premonition that she will face buring in some way. The combing of his hair with a comb of alder also ties into the dance for his father's head and the threat of cannibalism. Celtic tales are rife with talking heads, skulls, and magical hair.

In the mirror story, the tale alluded to again is the animal groom tale where the groom is a human only in the dark and a candle is lit to reveal him as a human. As soon as the groom is revealed in his human form, he vanishes, leaving the princess with the struggle to find him and recover his love. There are also many folktales of princesses killing their lovers on a wedding night by strangulation. In the animal groom story, the prince, once revealed, is often taken by demons. In this story, it is Korutos again who sends him into oblivion, taking the opportunity from Runion. The death of Manwen takes from Kileen any appeal to the mind: the battle is not between the heart and the body of the prince.

The fifth part of the book, Carria, or the red stag, signifies the second lowest level of development, the level of territorial disputes, survivial of the fittest and fight or flight decisions. The matching tale here is that of "Kari Woodengown", a Cinderella variant where the princess is befriended by a bull in her father's fields where she has been banished to tend to the livestock. She flees with the bull when her stepmother convinces her father to have the bull killed. They encounter three woods of copper, silver, and gold. The bull warns Kari that she must not touch the leaves of the wood or he will have to fight the owner which turns out to be a troll. Of course, she does, and he must fight three times.

Kari Woodengown In the forest, Kileen enounters three of the Wood's "owners" in the form of evil spirits called up by the River Birch. Luaith fights off the first and Carria the second. As in "Kari Woodengown" it takes him a day and a night to heal from his encounter with the spirit wolves. This section emphasizes the two sides of the Birch in a dychotomony for a the two-dimensional world inhabited by Carria. Over and over again, this imagery is seen in Fairy Tales between "good" and "bad", obedient and disobedient, useful and lazy, etc. Part of what is necessary to realize about Fairy Tales is that the stories show what happens when the prince or princess throws off resistance to change and obeys the demands of the tale. In so many tales, part of the spiritual journey is to accept the sacrifice of the helpful animals of the tale. Carria represents the sacrifice of the animal in an attempt to drive the soul to self-confrontation and change. After the sacrifice, she is led to An Doras and forced into the spiral maze of trees, an allusion to the Minotaur story.

At Nava, in the mirror story, Kileen has lost the upper two levels and is stranded without social or mental help. She must now survive a political arena because of her own denial of innocence. Through guilt she accepted the mask of queen, and through guilt she takes up all the responsibility of being queen without acting upon that responsibility. Carria forces her into a situation where her passivity fails her and she is tempted to direct, still denying action for herself. Instead of being obedient, she asks another to stand in for her and is distraught by the sacrifice.

The matching tales for this section are two fragments: the tale of the Minotaur and the Maze, and the tale from Quo Vadis where the heroine is tied to the horns of a bull in the Circus when the Christians are sacrificed by Nero. In a political ploy to rouse the Tualárach against the Zelosian invaders, Kileen accepts her role as a martyr to be killed in the arena as a common criminal for the murder of Hav, Sorcha, and Manwen. Again, she rides the bull as Kari Woodengown, again the three forests are passed through: the forest of flowers, the forest of rain, and the forest of arrows. By catching the flowers and accepting her role as queen, Kileen condemns the bull to fight his way free of the maze of Nava a counterpoint to the maze of the Wood. Yet, in the forest she enters into the maze as a deer, in the mirror story she must get of out the maze as a human. In both stories, she forces her way through the maze with her body or the body of the bull. He tells her three times that she must go with him in one direction and she "controls" him with her body urging him to go another way, into the trap and battle even though she knows from the bull having killed the two criminals and Bán Eilit that the bull is action without conscience.

The matching tales for this section are two fragments: the tale of the Minotaur and the Maze, and the tale from Quo Vadis where the heroine is tied to the horns of a bull in the Circus when the Christians are sacrificed by Nero. In a political ploy to rouse the Tualárach against the Zelosian invaders, Kileen accepts her role as a martyr to be killed in the arena as a common criminal for the murder of Hav, Sorcha, and Manwen. Again, she rides the bull as Kari Woodengown, again the three forests are passed through: the forest of flowers, the forest of rain, and the forest of arrows. By catching the flowers and accepting her role as queen, Kileen condemns the bull to fight his way free of the maze of Nava a counterpoint to the maze of the Wood. Yet, in the forest she enters into the maze as a deer, in the mirror story she must get of out the maze as a human. In both stories, she forces her way through the maze with her body or the body of the bull. He tells her three times that she must go with him in one direction and she "controls" him with her body urging him to go another way, into the trap and battle even though she knows from the bull having killed the two criminals and Bán Eilit that the bull is action without conscience.

At the level of Osar, Kileen has been expelled from Nava, just as she has been expelled from the forest and cut off from the animals she has known there. Yet, the most striking image of Osar is that of the Sacrificed King, bound and hung upside-down. Korutos, as king, has neglected to burn the deerskin of his wife and rejects her vocally when he realizes that she is an animal. Instead of doing as the Fairy Tale demands when the king must cut the finger of the true wife and reject the false queen, Korutos flees to the wood, thus betraying both of Marsyas's children as he saw in An Doras. Over and over, in the Wings of Gallanis the Fairy Tale is presented and rejected or denied. The circle is closed when Runion mutters upon killing Bán Eilit, "but I shot a deer!" The witch is killed, yet the prince cannot ride back in triumph with his princess, the brother and sister cannot return to the peace of their innocence. Instead of becoming king, as was his plan, Runion is stripped and made a slave, something that goes completely against the grain in Fairy Tale land where the boy comes to maturity when he destroys the witch and wins the princes.

Twelve Brothers Finally, in Havoc, the Eagle or Hawk, the mirror turns back upon itself and Kileen is shot down in deer form by the prince. At Nava, she is led to the stake where she will be burned. In "the Twelve Brothers" the queen is burned for her silence. In tale after tale, the new queen is burned for "eating" her own children. Kileen has lost her child, lost her husband, and is condemned to the stake for being a demon. In the Fairy Tale, the king will rescue her at the last moment. Runion cries for her to rescue herself, which she will not do until he sacrifices the ring of Gallanis. We now see that it was Runion, not Korutos or Manwen who was Kileen's conscious guide in the mirror world of Nava. Manwen shows her the fate of a similar personality under oppression. Korutos shows her how she has failed to throw off her guilt and responsibility. Yet, it is Runion who shows her the way to do what the others have pointed to, but not explained.

Psychological Correspondences


In this book, Wilson describes a common four type evolution of the personality and goes on to map another four levels onto the basic for as a kind of map of transcendence. The first of the four basic levels he calls "bio-survival" or Freud's oral stage, the stage at which the infant is infatuated with the mother. The second level he names, "Emotional Territoriality" and is Freud's anal stage, or the level at which children learn me and you. The third level Wilson calls "Time-Binding Semantics" or Freud's phallic level during which the child learns the intricacies of language including lying, ritualizing, and marking time. These three levels are explored in the Tarot and in many other systems, including many Fairy Tales such as "The Bushy Bride" in which the hero/heroine must deal with three men, animals, or situations describing the passage into adulthood. The fourth level is called, "Sexual Morality" and is the top level for most systems and cultures. The Tarot marks these levels as Oral-Cups, (body and body issues such as debauchery), Anal-Wands, (emotion and emotional issues such as inspiration), Sexual-Swords, (thought and idealogical issues such as deceit), and Moral-Discs, (actions and consequences, such as husbandry or trade). The Sufis mark these four levels with color: blue, red, yellow, and green and they are described as the "animal nafs" namely, the sensual force, the rage force, the conscious force, and the unconscious force. There is some mismapping in that the Sufis have considered the super-ego forces to be human nafs and the fourth level may be described as belonging to the super-ego. Yet, it may be said that the fourth level is the point at which an animal becomes human, or socialized.

Wilson then goes on in this book to describe four more states obtained by mystics or through the use of mind-expanding drugs. The fifth level, he calls "Neuro-Somatic Rapture" and equates with the euphoric awareness experienced in a marijuana trip. The sixth level, named "Neurogenetic Vision" by Wilson, he equates to an LSD or mushroom experience in which the novice experiences a kind of universal connection to all of humanity and often sees himself as an extension of the natural world. The seventh level, called by Wilson, "Meta-programming" is one often cited by mystics who experience an influence on the world around them through their ability to remove the self from the programming directed since birth. This level is the message of movies such as Matrix that call attention to the fact that the map is not the territory. Wilson describes his eigth level, but I do not use this level in the book since it is a trans-human level achieved only by those who are enlightened.

Carse - Finite and Infinite Games

Carse uses gaming metaphor in his book to describe behavior in people as closed or open. Kileen faces a finite game through her fear and an infinite game through love, or turning outward. Faol is the level of security and opportunity. Faol seeks to make Kileen available for opportunity. Nava walls her in and offers her security. Bradán seeks to give her self-awareness; Nava gives her image personas to block awareness of self. Verres tries to help her learn to love. Nava asks her to learn to sacrifice. Fiach calls upon her to find her integrity: in Nava Fiach lets her betray herself for the sake of appearances. Carria tries to give her confidence. Nava tries to give her power. Osar wants her to take independence and Nava asks that she is loyal. Through Havoc she learns to find transcendence while Nava lures her with wanting immortality for her name. In each case, she retreats from the infinite game offered by the image of the animal because of fear and tries to play the finite game forced on her by Nava because of love. The juxposition of the state of her mind and the game offered creates a tension that is obvious in the weaving of the stories together.

Percy -

Percy describes in his book the attempts by the self to escape and the mode by which re-entry is achieved. This is mapped as a continuous flow in The Wings of Gallanis. Each mode of re-entry fails until the final section. In Faol, we explore the re-entry mode of geological travel. In Bradán, the mode is anesthesia. Verres re-entry is offered through sexual infidelity, Fiach through role playing. The mode of re-entry gets more desperate in Carria with assault and finally in Osar through return, where each story finds Kileen where she began in the other story. Havoc represents both suicide and conversion in that Kileen throws herself into her death, yet, in doing so understands the theme of the book.

Seven Deadly Sins and the Enneagram - Gurdjieff, Naranjo, Riso

The personality map of the Enneagram is the seven deadly sins plus two. At each level of animal, Kileen is presented with representatives of each sin and its opposite or positive Enneagram integration. The Enneagram is represented as a map of weaknesses in which the novice may slide up or down toward anothe number. The sins are represented as Anger, Pride, Deceit, Envy, Avarice, Fear, Gluttony, Lust, and Sloth. Deceit and Fear are not of the original seven. In the disintegration of the personality, Anger slides into Envy, Envy into Pride, Pride into Lust, Lust into Avarice, Avarice into Gluttony, and Glutton into Anger. On a separate map, Sloth leads to Fear, Fear to Deceit, and Deceit into Sloth. When the personality is integrated, the novice takes on positive attributes of the sin. Anger becomes Tolerance. Pride becomes Unconditional Love. Deceit becomes Motivation. Envy becomes Creativity. Avarice becomes Understanding. Fear becomes Courage. Gluttony becomes Appreciation. Lust becomes Magnanimity. And Sloth becomes Autonomy.

Here are the numerical designations and the levels of health of the Enneagram map:

Pride, conceit
2. altruistic, empathetic, compassionate, caring, encouraging and generous
2. possessive, overbearing, patronizing, demonstrative
2. manipulative, domineering, coercive, resentful
Wants to be loved, needed and appreciated.

3. authentic, self-assured, popular, ambitious, motivating
3. competitive, pragmatic, calculating, exhibitionistic, pretentious
3. hostile, exploitative, opportunistic, devious, vindictive, sadistic, jealous
Wants to be affirmed, admired and distinguished

4. inspired, creative, intuitive, sensitive, personal
4. romantic, introverted, moody, melancholy, self-indulgent, precious
4. alienated, depressed, morbid, self-destructive, escapist
Wants to express self-beauty, emotional needs

5. visionary, perceptive, insightful, innovative, original, expert
5. analytic, specialized, detached, reductionistic, eccentric, extremist
5. reclusive, cynical, antagonistic, phobic, circumspect
Wants to understand, gain knowledge

6. trusting, independent, interdependent, cooperative, enduring, committed
6. obedient, ambivalent, evasive, defensive, partisan
6. insecure, dependent, anxious, paranoid, irrational, masochistic
Wants security, to be liked

7. appreciative, awed, joyous, responsive, vivacious, achiever, talented
7. sophisticate, hyperactive, dilettante, materialistic, jaded
7. offensive, impulsive, infantile, obnoxious, debauched, manic, hysterical
Wants to be happy, have fun, be entertained

8. maganimous, restrained, courageous, heroic, confident, decisive
8. enterprising, forceful, expansive, dominating, combative, belligerent
8. ruthless, aggressive, relentless, delusional, grandiose, vengeful
Wants to be self-reliant and have an impact

9. fulfilled, equanimous, content, receptive, stable, peaceful, unpretentious
9. self-effacing, unreflective, oblivious, fatalistic, resigned
9. repressed, undeveloped, ineffectual, neglectful, disoriented, catatonic
Wants union, to avoid conficts

1. wise, discerning, tolerant, realistic, rational, conscientious, moderate
1. idealistic, advocate, reformer, critical, judgemental, opinionated, perfectionistic
1. self-righteous, intolerant, dogmatic, inflexible, obsessive, punitive
Wants to be right, to improve others

Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator - Myers and Briggs

It is always bad to rely upon one personality system for characters. I have found the combination of the Enneagram and the MBTI to be more sound. It is an expansion upon Jung's basic personality map where he explained that each person has a preference for a certain kind of behavior for an external display and has an auxilliary personality of the opposite preferences. In introverts, the auxilliary personality is used for social situations, which puts introverts at a disadvantage and contributes to their shyness and awkwardness in social situations.

The system consists of four preferences. The Berkeley Five, a study done by Keith Harary out of U of C, Berkeley, uses empirical data from all over the world to come up with the same preferences except for the Feeling-Thinking preference which he splits into two preferences. I happen to agree with his findings. A combination of types gives 16 extreme personalities for the MBTI and 20 for the Berkeley Five. Because there is a scale from one exteme to the other, the variations are almost infinite. Introversion (I) to Extraversion (E)

Introversion (I) to Extraversion (E)

This is both an energy level and a direction indicator. Introverts focus their main personality inside or among a private group. Extraverts need far more stimulation, tend to think out loud and prefer more friends and events. We believe that this is one of the traits that is "hard-wired", completely dependent upon how a person receives sensory data. A baby who is introverted will not be able to "turn off" and often gets over stimulated by small things. Either the gain is turned up on receiving signals from the nervous system or there is no dampening or habituating effect to make the person want to "ramp" up the stimulation to experience the same excitement.

Severe introversion is very rare, and introversion that is more than mild occurs in only about 10 percent of the American population. Mild introversion manifests itself in people who need to "recharge" and have no problems being by themselves. Often these traits show up in people who are mildly extraverted as well.

Sensing (S) to Intuiting (N)

This preference is the way the mind learns and aquires new data. Sensing types, like Sherlock Holmes and Elmer Fudd are methodical, throrough, and tend to like learning from step A to B to C. They do well in school and make up about 60 percent of the population. Intuiting types like Albert Einstein and Buggs Bunny have to re-invent the wheel every time they come across something new. They do not gather facts, but fit facts into an existing framework. They tend to be creative and imaginative, yet often have trouble finding their shoes.

Feeling (F) to Thinking (T)

The MBTI describes this preference as both emotive and problem solving orientation. Keith Harary's team separated emotivity from orientation. Feeling people are emotive and people oriented. Thinking people are restrained and goal oriented. There is reported to be a 50/50 split in the American population that is along gender lines. Cross gender people are often those who do not fit the gender stereotype made famous in the book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus, an okay book that does not take into consideration enough social customs learned in families. Italian men tend to be emotive and goal-oriented, for example.

I call goal vs people, justice versus mercy in that one preference demands to be be right at the cost of people's feelings, while the other will lie or distort facts to save the face of those involved. This type difference is the most volitile although the S-N preference causes the most communication problems. In my own experience, I tested right on the line with this preference, yet in taking the Berkeley Five test I tested way out on Self-Sacrifice (People Oriented) and way out on low emotivity. I have many problems with women who think that I'm not responding correctly due to cool reactions.

Judging (J) to Perceiving (P)

This preference is the most difficult when people have to work or live together. The preference is for time management. Judging people want to manage their time, Perceiving people want options and open-ended relationships. Extreme J's cannot live without their Daytimers; extreme P's cannot meet any schedule, no matter how vague. J's are weakest when plans change, P's tend to think on their feet and improvise well. J's are compulsive, P's won't notice if they have month-old sandwiches in their living rooms.

Sufism and Psychotherapy - Shafii

The Sufis (an esoteric discipline developed out of Islam) describe several stages of being which are called "nafs". There are vegetable nafs, animal nafs, human nafs and then the student advances into the nafs of higher consciousness. Here is repeated some of the knowledge from Wilson's book and again, the oral, anal, verbal, sexual stages are re-enacted. Mohammad Shafii, M.D. relates in his book, "Freedom from the Self", many correspondences between what Sufism tries to encourage in people and what psychoanalysis can do for people in helping them to discover the areas of habituated behavior or behavior out of fear. The Sufis have assigned colors for some of the lower levels: blue, red, yellow, and green, which again ties their ideas back to those of Crowley and other students of the Tarot. (See Tarot page.)

he Wings of Gallanis is a spiral downward as Kileen fails to learn the lessons of one level and drops down into the next. She starts at level six and winds up at level one until she bounces back up into level seven. (Wilson) However, each level is much more complex than a translation of Wilson.



Faol Faol corresponds to level six in Wilson's system. In this section rarely is there any mention of individual endeavor; the emphasis is on genetic endeavor, the survival of lines of people, ancestors and races. We are introduced to people a group at a time: the Anu, the Holly, the Tualárach, the Zelosians, the Rowan, the Oak. The interplay between races is important: the alliance between age-old enemies of Oak and Holly, the submission of the Tualárach to the Zelosians and the Anu to Dumona. People are spoken of in the context of their families as the son of so and so, or the head of the family or the queen of such and such tribe. Kileen is known by the name: Kileen Hava, which means, "daughter of Hav" and has no other identity except that which is disputed. The struggle is around whose daughter she is and how she fits into the family, the ancestry, and the politics of succession.

Faol himself corresponds to many images, but the psychological image is that of a time horizon that runs from capitalistic planning and husbandry to contractual arrangements and storage to instant gratification and carnage. He is represented by the Enneagram type 1. He is confrontation, morality and redemption. Faol rips from Kileen the first veil, that of the illusion that she is Hav's daughter. He is the healthy alternative of open battle as opposed to Hav and B&#n Eilit, both unhealthy 2's who seek to manipulate and control her through guilt. Both of them accuse Kileen of pride, whereas Faol merely strips her of the lies from her refuge at Last Farm. Over and over Kileen fears the carnage of the Wolf and the Holly, yet they present to her a picture of planning that required sacrifice and speak of postponing their pleasure in order to preserve a situation.

The Cuilinn is the Champion of Faol's tree, the Holly. The Holly are a very clannish and very touchy people. No other Tree clan would have been able to destroy Last Farm and turn around and treat Kileen with such objectivity. For the Holly, killing is a part of their psyche and not something they enjoy or despise. They represent the Enneagram scale of 4 to 1 to 7, running the scale from moody and self-absorbed to punitive, high-handed, and moral to being tolerant, wise and appreciative. Both Faol and the Holly are there to rip Kileen from any security she might hold onto out of fear.

Another aspect of the wolf image is played out in the comparison to dogs. The natives of Anieth describe the soldiers and the people of Dumona as dogs. This is another play on the use of land in that the Forest people live in the land and the Outsiders use the land. It is also an allusion to the hierarchal structures of command stated very clearly by Faol in his speech of the difference between the soldier and the hunter. The soldier's horizon is shortened when compared to the warrior and the warrior is shortened when compared to the hunter. Each pursues prey, yet the planning involved grows progressively longer for each. Here, we speak of the soldier alone and not the social structure of which he is part. That he needs a social structure to delegate his ability to plan is the whole point.

Luaith runs contrary to the main thrust of psychological arguement and correspondence. In Faol's segment, the arguement is independence of choice vs. the security of having no choice. The witch and Hav both argue that if Kileen chooses for herself it is because she expects some reward that they alone should be able to give or deny. Luaith recommends that Kileen make a choice, yet she forces Kileen to look at the consequences of guilt. Whereas Faol has no respect for the others in Kileen's circle, Luaith cannot deny the power of Kileen's connections to distract her from her path. Luaith gives Kileen the 2 argument from another perspective. Lonrach also represents this argument since she is Luaith's Tree. For them, the goal of having Kileen make something of herself is suppressed by the effect that other people's feelings and demands will have on Kileen's mental health. Both of these women call for Kileen to act out of love and not fear, whereas the Cuilinn and Faol call for Kileen to stop living a lie. For the women the truth is not an objective.

In Nava, we see the structures of level six set up, family against family, race against race, histories of ancestors affecting the present actions of the main characters. Korutos is enmired in the past, acting only as a representative of his brother's death wish. LiHara is also a projection of the past, unable to accept any destiny for her people other than the one she learned at her mother's knee. Runion is embittered by his inability to choose a family and stay loyal to it. He jumps from Gallanis to Druacca as he feels the pressure from LiHara or Korutos go against him. Hav is a man without a family, desperate to attach himself to a new family through his daughter. The only concern of these people is how to consolidate the power of themselves within the structure of their families. To them, Kileen is only an object by which to gain power. At this level in Nava, Kileen has no name, does not even speak for herself, yet is constantly referred to in their plans.

We see again the spread of time horizon. Korutos plans for generations on a grand scale and is ready to sacrifice his entire life for the goal of bringing enlightenment to the people he has helped to conquer. LiHara plans for a few years out, waiting for the moment when she can strike down the Zelosians and free her people. She is prepared to be patient, yet expects a reward in her lifetime. Runion cannot plan very far out. He is young and impatient, yet he sees the need for family connections and is prepared to wait a couple of years. He feels abused by waiting and fears having to put his reward aside for the good of the tribe. Hav cannot plan at all, but seizes opportunity as it presents itself jumping into situations and out expecting gratification yet finding it lasting too short a time to be satisfying. We can already see that Korutos will appeal to Kileen for a sacrifice of her life for a very long term goal on a grand scale. LiHara will appeal to her for a sacrifice to bring down the Zelosians, yet she will promise Kileen some reward after that success. Runion expects Kileen to find reward immediately in his person and will ask her for an immediate sacrifice for gratification that will be short term. Hav will ask her to sacrifice for the immediate problem and chide her for trying to see any larger picture that will jepordize opportunity.


Bradan Failing to satisfy the genetic demands of Dumona, Last Farm, Luaith's family, Bán Eilit's Clan, or the Trees expectations of her inherited abilities, Kileen falls down a level, symbolized by the death of the protector, Tam, who has an 1ish direction over his clan. She is run to the ground by the domesticated image of Faol which is the short-sighted dog who lives on carnage. She runs from Faol in both stories, in his wild state as she runs from the truth, in his domestic state as she runs into her responsibility. In both instances, he chases her into the maze, yet she fails re-entry through geographical displacement. She then must enter into the next phase of her downward spiral, the fifth level of psycho-somatic rapture.

radán represents spiritual direction. On one end there is ecstatic awareness of a pitch that is impossible to maintain. One progresses into self-awareness and a feeling of being connected into the mind emptying rituals where chanting and meditating are a part. In altered states from the excited to the numbed there is some realization of the mind as a tool to be used for progression on the spiritual path. Bradán represents any altered state of an esoteric or psychic nature. Yet, as evidenced by the appearance of poppy as his flower, the danger of Bradán is in the anesthetization of the mind, the habituation to the altered state so that it becomes and escape rather than a mode of re-entry. Because we are at the fifth level, the point at which the spiritual marriage has taken place and the intitate is ready for the upper levels of development, the riddles asked of Kileen are to test her awareness of the animal nafs that she must conquer. She is asked the root, trunk, leaves, flowers riddle and has so little self knowledge that she does not recognize it as the integrated human. "Who contains the sustenance?" "He is larger inside than out": control over the body. "Who contains the detention?" "He struggles and does not fight." : control over the emotions. "Who attends the untenable?" "He says naught, yet he answers.": control over thinking. "Who entertains the pretense?" "He is an end in an endless stream.": control over social/sexual situation. The fact that Kileen has no clue to these riddles is a clue that she is on the road to find out.

After dipping into the band between 1 and 2, Kileen leaps into the waters of 4 with the salmon. She experiences the wide internal psychology from depression and self-hatred through the romantic experience into the sensitive, personal, and inspired realms of the journey through the underground river of the senses. Bradán also tries to get her to integrate and reach out of the waters into the light of inspiration and trancendent love. He is disciplined and yet sensual, critical and intolerant, yet discerning, showing her the way to integrate to 1. Luaith, on the other hand, is introverted, depressed to the point of not being able to talk to Kileen, and yet shows an understanding of her situation and can apply her intuition of her own fall to the general.

The witch, Bán Eilit, an unhealthy 2 with 1 or 1 with 2, shows her 1ish side here as her demands for perfection and intolerance lash out at Kileen in a very physical demonstration of anger. Compare Bán Eilit crying, "Gone are the days when we could expect justice!" with Bradán asking, "The forms are monstrous to you, or are the shadows in your own mind the true monsters?" as examples of an unhealthy 1 versus the 4 who has integrated.

The Hazel are the best representation of the 4 nature of integration of turbulent emotions into a mystical vision of the self. There is nothing straightforward about the Hazel, yet they are intuitive despite their obvious attraction to aspects of debauchery. They are a vision of the 4's ability to separate the internal state from an awareness of it, as if they can watch themselves engage in any range of behaviors. Nothing is unconscious with them. The mood of Bradán and the Hazel is that of heightened, almost painful self-awareness and an overload of sensory data. The Rush are an extension of the witch and are merely malicious in a disguise of innocence as the unhealthy 2 w 1 can seem friendly and lash out when crossed.

In Nava, we see the next level as an attempt for self-awareness. Kileen is presented with the Four Appetites again. Sorcha with her bloated body and unsatiable appetites finds her world smaller outside than in. LiHara who sees herself strong enough to lift a man with one arm rages out in her gilded prison where her hair is always combed to perfection while she dashes unacceptable plates across the room. She, certainly, cannot struggle without fighting although she deludes herself that she is self-contained. The beautiful and sensitive Manwen struggles to understand the world and his place in it, yet blows with every wind and cannot offer any opinion to save his life. He envies the people he sees as intellectual, yet he is unable to hold onto the ideas his life presents in the face of offering displeasure. Korutos enters as the very model of decency and privilege, yet we know that it is all a pretense and what he most desires is the destruction of his position and the freedom to choose a woman forbidden to him.

In this section of the story, it becomes more obvious that Kileen has integrated some knowledge about herself in that symbolically, she denies the Appetites of these four persons. She does not join in Sorcha's quest for new edibles or encourage Sorcha to set her up in any other pleasures of the flesh. She will not fight with LiHara even when provoked, nor does she obey LiHara's request for help with her hair. The dogs, an extention of LiHara, completely avoid Kileen. Kileen does not engage in any question and answer games with Manwen, but confesses an emotional state and tries to be an emotional companion. Manwen appreciates her delight and her sadness, yet they never sit down and riddle out their situation to their mutual benefit. The two, in comparing notes, could have allied together against the queens, yet they find a non-intellectual solace that does little to advance their situation. Kileen has opportunity to entice Korutos and get into his sphere of influence, yet denies him twice.

However, in the Nava part of the story, each time Kileen rebuffs one of the Appetites, she emerges a little more from the shell of Nava, both physically and with greater control over her internal health. Even as it appears that she is getting a better understanding of herself, she falls back downstream when Brad&#n tries to take her from Nava. At the end of part one, she was lying, crippled and defeated after Korutos killed Faol; at the end of part two, she lies again, defeated, without the strength to protest. This is symbolized by the death of Hav, who provided her with a connection to the past. She has been cut free by the knife, yet she has actually been freed by a drowning. Hav's drowning as a subsitute of hers, shows that she denies the call to change, or die, and in accepting his death, she realizes that she is still stuck in her problems.


Verres Kileen now drops down to Wilson's level four, the level at which most Fairy Tales end: sexual and social maturity. Verres represents several psychological elements, lust, defense of young, appearance, and earthy emotions. In the Wings of Gallanis I have focused on the aspect of the boar of sensuality. Often in tales, the pig or the boar is seen as a symbol of sexual or sensual gluttony. We are given to understand through Luaith and through Verres that it is his newest shape and he is most vulnerable to the appetites of the animal while under his influence. In Sufism there is a driving force and a sensual force, and swine represent both of these aspects of humanity in the extreme.

Verres's trees are the Apple and the Vine, yet we do not see the Apple or the Vine. Verres's nature is displayed at the very beginning of the section, yet then he is bound. The Ash play two parts in this section. Nion-niau represents the integration of the sin of gluttony, represented on the Enneagram by the number 7. She insists that she must have a demonstration of discrimination as 7 integrates to 5. She presents the 1 side of the integration in her extreme tolerance and wisdom. She is the integrated 1, who knows the law and insists upon justice, yet denies that the law has any power over the individual case. Luaith, as the Lynx, represents the reclusive nature of the 5 and Kileen is the mid-point, the problem solver. In order to prove that she is not engaging in 7ish behavior and is particular about loving Verres and Verres alone not just as some new experience, Kileen has to solve the riddle of the Three Impossible Tasks. She must make a cloak without fabric or sewing to show her love; she must tell a story without words or voice to have her love blessed; and, finally, she must bear a child without flesh, nourished on moonbeams to show that her love is permanent. These are the three aspects of the glutton, who demands satiation of the flesh: to discriminate, to accept the decision, and to show some staying power with the choice.

Kileen, a 5 with 4 or a 4 with 5, was tested in the previous section and showed her integration of 2 in her willingness to save Brad&#n although she was frightened of him. In Verres, she must show the integration of 7 and commit to a direction in her life without showing that she will keep changing course or abandon a love out of an inabilty to experience on a deep enough level to be satisfying. The Ash Mother's instistence that Verres be silent is to cut off Kileen from the power of new sensation swaying her ability to to choose and not just to fall into the sensation of experience without discrimination or thought.

In the mirror story, we are presented with the sensates: Sorcha, Manwen, and Runion. None of these people has any thought of discriminating politically, emotionally, or socially through their sexual contacts. They experience sex as a physical pleasure alone. The little we see of sex in this section is of deviant sex for the jaded palate or the experimenter rather than sex to cement a relationship or for reproduction. it is obvious that these people care little for the emotional experience of love in their casual experience. They each rationalize in their own ways. Sorcha, a 7, finds that no experience has any lasting power to entertain her. Manwen, a 4, finds that sex is a way to be acceptable to people he fears or envies. Runion, a 3 with 4 finds that sex is a way to secure his image of prowess. Even his nickname among the women is a rather crude word for a stud horse.

Kileen is healthier here, yet still cannot deny the call of guilt and responsibilty. She can best help Korutos by opening up his mind to tolerance in offering him the love he wants and then forcing him to understand that he has loved a demon. All his life he has flirted with the idea of loving a shapeshifter, yet has never confronted this or elevated it to tolerance. He has made of it a private way to punish himself. Kileen could best help Manwen in promoting his creativity by helping him to compose and direct music to entertain and amuse a wider audience. She could best help Runion by turning his love from a brutal, sensual level to a love for a sister whom he admires and trusts. She attempts to go in these directions, yet she cannot choose among the grooms offered and her ambivalence creates political chaos. Thus, she denies the level of social status through marriage and maturity.

We get the idea that Kileen wants to offer up Verres as the King Consort. This is a false fix, a 7ish way to try to make everyone happy since she has to know that Verres has no interest in being King and that the people she would rule could not accept such as he as King. The entire people, both Tualárach and Zelosian, have fallen under the spell of her enchantment and her transient fame, yet it is only Sorcha who clearly sees that Verres is only there to take the queen away. Kileen shows some intuitive skill in winning the hearts of Nava, yet she does not use her new-found social position to beg for her freedom and Verres's. She does not test her position by changing into a beast or by demanding to be adopted by Korutos as his daughter once he takes up his position as Kuros. Korutos is known to have supported both Manwen and Runion, it would have been an easy step for him to countenance Kileen as the daughter of the woman he loved. Yet, because Korutos is blinded by his guilt, she would have had to make him see an alternative. No, she tries to extend her position when she does not even want it herself and falls down another level when Korutos kills Verres and Sorcha dies.


Fiach The raven, Fiach, is a riddler of a different sort. He represents the dance of words both to obfuscate and to enlighten. He symbolizes Wilson's third level, that of time- binding and word making, the verbal level. Most children learn story telling, the passage of days and lying at the same time about the age of four and five. The raven also represents the sin of avarice, chasing baubles because he is too bored with the day to day chore of survival. Ravens are said to be, literally, "too smart to be birds". In tales they are almost always old and full of mischievious wisdom showing one side as a impish collector of trivia and another as the bird of war.

This section is full of ravens turning everything upside-down. Their antics are the mimicry of the verbal battles often played in academia, a frou-frou sort of dueling that has little to do with actual danger or is life-threatening. Kileen learns the story of Fiach's father, Branán, who lost his head to the Alder in a contest. Fiach, in some unexplained quest of pride or duty, risks his fellow ravens every year in the same contest to win back his father's bones. The Celts, unlike most other Europeans, believed that the seat of a human was in his head rather than in his heart. They revered skulls and heads, believing that the spirits of their ancestors spoke to them though the skulls. They took heads in battle and "invented" the act of scalping which they taught to the American Indians. Kileen is faced with an endless tangle of words aimed at her most vulnerable points, her 4ish shame and her 5ish lack of knowledge. Uafásach is the opposing tree and her contrast to the Alder is that between 4 and 5. The Alder show the greed of the 5 in their lust for the flesh of their enemies. The Hawthorn preys upon Kileen's shame just as Bán Eilit decries her greed. It is only in facing the Hawthorn that Kileen sees the trap of her own personality. She sees that she is vulnerable to filling the needs of other people regardless of whether or not they deserve or can be healed by her. Her shame is aggravated by Fiach's moodiness and fear. Finally, she takes the plunge into the animal, too filled with self-pity to try to fight the immolation of her shape by the Hawthorn any more than she could fight being eaten alive by the cannibal Alder.

At Nava, self-deceit and shame is translated into the Raven's ability to deceive and spread rumor. The first scene shows Manwen, the intellect, strangled by Kileen's own hair. Yet, we know that several people have had that rope of hair. We are led into a snarled skein as LiHara and Runion both follow the twists and turns of politics and crime. The Enneagram type of 5 is described as excelling in "fouling his own den" in that the 5 is his own worst enemy in spinning the world into a complexity too great to unravel. In the guise of solving the mystery of the murders, Korutos is led into this web of lies where the witch sits, weaving, giving him tokens and clues and no real answers.

Fiach, at this point, shows his human form for the first time in Nava. It is a show of the inside-out riddle where the animal is understood only in a human guise. Fiach, as moody as ever, turns back and forth on Korutos and finally demands that the Commander kill him. The result of the pretense that Kileen wanted to hold from the wood comes to fruition here with the knowledge that Fiach has been released only to be crucified as a punishment for her inability to decide the fate for a king. With the death of Fiach, Kileen throws herself into the pit by complying with the plot to sacrifice the new queen so that the Tualárach will revolt. The gamut of lust to avarice to gluttony has been run. Up until this point Kileen has been falling due to passivity; now she throws herself under the knife.


Kileen From Fiach, Kileen falls into Wilson's level two, the level at which self and other are separted into friend and enemy. Carria is the Stag who must answer every challenge to his territory or fail to reproduce. On the Enneagram, Carria represents the sin of vainglory or pride, yet also the quality of selfless sacrifice. His mother accuses him of "lan de lan" or being full of himself. She accuses him of making Kileen's statue out of hawthorn wood because of his desire for her to be desireable and not because he thought it through. From Combe Charria, Kileen has travelled as an animal into the enemy's territory and faces attack after attack as she struggles in fleeing every shadow and smell. She becomes human only in extreme conditions: to save Luaith's life and to be by Carria's side as he lies dying.

The duality of the Birch represents the psychology of the 8 on the level of territory and danger to self. The Silver Birch speak of reaching up into 2, denying themselves every opportunity to act out their sense of urgency and fear. They wear their lives like a hairshirt, aiming only to overcome their humanity and enter the other world. The River Birch are locked in the law and rules of their narrow world, never looking up to see that there may be something other than a threat to their security. Both also show a 1ish tendency to harshness and self-denial with a heavy-handed morality, yet the issues here are territorial, full of blood-lust and combat. After Carria is killed by his "successor", the Stag Hirsh, Luaith performs the ultimate sacrifice, giving a life to the Birch so that Kileen might go free. Instead, the witch invokes a deeper law of blood for blood. The Silver Birch step in and declare that Kileen is no longer free to be punished or to fight for herself.

In the mirror story, Carria takes the form of death in the arena. Korutos goes to Kileen and demands his right to die for the land. Kileen gives it to him saying that it is for him, and not for anything else, that she marries him to make him king. She accepts the ring of power and we know that now Korutos will not be able to save himself. Kileen now has the power, yet she does not have the will. She accuses Carria and tries to provoke him into killing her. Yet, as soon as she is freed, she does not use her power to save her people, to save Korutos, or to save Carria. She manipulates the bull from his back as surely as he is "herded" by the soldiers behind the crowd.

LiHara, the example of this level of being, is killed by the bull. Korutos tries to save Kileen by killing the bull, yet their attempts to go to Dubh are met short by the birch. In the other killings of the shapes of Carria, Korutos was solely responsible. In this section of the book, he executes his last command. In terms of magic, by acting through the proxy of his soldiers who then weep and wail that they have killed a demon and brought about the wrath of the wood, Korutos has forfeited his power to be king. The Rowan prediction stated that the king would be known by his killing of hound, horse, man and bull, yet, in the last, Korutos orders the bull to be killed while he tries to hold onto Kileen and keep her from the death himself. By this deed, he demonstrates a 2ish trait of acting in some way that appears to be helpful yet is actually selfish. Since in all Christ stories where the king is killed for the sins of the people the king must be pure enough to die for love, Korutos falls from grace, dragging Kileen with him.


Osar Osar is the first level of being, that of water and survival and self-identification. He also represents the sin of sloth or the sin of detaching from conflict and being fatalistic. Osar's tree is the Oak. The Oak represent the low end of 9 into low 6, the bullying anger of the frustrated authority. It is heard that the Oak buy captives for their games. Oak alone of all of the Trees are bullys and cowards, relying on their great size to intimidate their clients and enemies. Their weapons, like that of the bear, are clumsy and large. Osar wants nothing more than the comfort of gorging himself on berries at An Doras. Kileen, also, has wearied of the maze and the chores of trying to understand herself and retreats into the play of pretending that danger is far away.

The opposing tree, Willow, shows Kileen the other side of sloth. She speaks of the attraction of merging with the world and the "other". She speaks of the only path out of this trap, that of turning the experiences that will lead to disconnection into the experiences that will make old age bearable as a blending into the world. It is only the intense horror of the Willow that finally tells Kileen the truth about her own nature and shows her that the way out is deeper in, to find the wings inside of herself and to fly free. In every other psyche, flying free of responsibility and fate would be the wrong path. Yet, for the 4/5/4 band, it is the path that is sometimes the only way out. Both 4 and 5 must let go of the past, they must let go of emotion and thought and just learn to fly.

Kileen is also forced into An Doras to face herself, her fears, and her expectations. On this level of basic survival, she sees her mother. Willow speaks of her mother. Kileen finally fears for her life and accepts that she will find no death, but become a stone woman rather than fly free of An Doras.

In Nava, Kileen is cast outside of the stone tomb, yet she finds no freedom. Korutos is hanged and Oak takes her to the road. The stones of the road are the stones of the walls that have hemmed her in. It is clear now that the Gallanis will meet with their fate, the fate of stone and fire. Runion tries to take up the mantle of kingship that Korutos forfeited and finds his men turn against him when he kills a demon where they supported his killing of the Zelosian. In Bán Eilit's original plan, Runion was to die, yet we find that she, in her lust to lure Runion to his death, ends up with an arrow in her heart. Runion returns with Kileen to claim his right to be king and finds, instead of having it all that he is stripped of everything and made a slave. Abaedes, the true sensate, has risen into power and taken it from the Gallanis.


Eagle The image of Havoc throws the story back up out of the downward spiral to Wilson's level seven, the power of re-writing one's psyche. His tree, the Yew is the dark side of 2, that of the manipulating attacker. Kileen finally runs out of patience with her fate and gets angry enough to run away from the call to sacrifice herself out of guilt and love of people she only vaguely remembers. In the forest story, her downward spiral is merely reversed and, in running away in anger, she runs right into the Yew and then into Runion's arrow thus sending the story right back to the beginning.

In the Nava story, Kileen must break out of her spiralling and free herself of the forms to which she has clung out of fear and a sense of misplaced responsibility and guilt. It is the death of Korutos, the 1, that shows her the folly of taking up the mantle of power and politics to try to control anyone's fate but her own. She realizes that she has made the mistake of trying to fix outside what she had to fix inside, a classic 1 problem. Yet it is Runion, the only person on the triangle of 3-6-9 who throws her the "wings" as she is buring alive on the pyre of her self-punishment.

As Havoc calls to her the door through suicide, the true nature of the path is seen that Kileen has been wishing for death and not for life, thus falling into the animal form, not rising into the substance of being all forms. She sees both the magic of changing into any form she chooses and the psychological magic of setting aside her belief that she was the forms pushed onto her by others, seen in the adding of names to her own name that were not names at all but titles of the forms she was expected to perform. Korutos, the great performer, has laid open the sin of guilt and Runion, the great pretender, has called to her to be "true to herself". The book ends with Kileen, the 5/4/5 taking on the form of 1 and 8 in that of the raptor rising up out of the flames.



I have always been fascinated with correspondences in stories. When I was in High School, I explored the repeating symbols and people in Fantasy. Although Fantasy can work very well in a completely new context such as Ursula LeGuin's Always Coming Home and some of Joy Chant's books, the author has to be a sort of anthropologist. Traditionally, Fantasy is set in Medieval Europe where it shares a home with most modern versions of Fairy Tales. Writers can even lift a kind of Shakespearean or Chaucerian language to make their books seem authentic. This kind of speech has even earned the name "High Fantasy" in the genre.

When I changed the context of my book from Medieval Europe to Greco-Roman Europe, I lost a little of the natual correspondences and language, yet I found myself free of the heavy "witch-burning" mentality that had greeted my shapeshifting characters. However, a deeper exploration of myth and symbol revealed that most Medieval correspondence has carried over from an earlier time and suffered for it because of the heavy hand of Christianity. Catholicism lay as a thin veneer over ancient custom, yet by the time of the Reformation, most of that richness was in flux. Because of the revivals that many people have encouraged in order to save their cultural identities, many of these lost correspondences are coming into common parlance again.

The deeper levels of symbol in my book are explored below. Rather than discuss each animal section, I will take each class of symbol and show how it changes through the progression of Kileen's psychology.


In Sufi symbolism, the lower color order is blue, red, yellow, and green. This correspondence is most evident in the Hazel where the first is blue, the second is red, the third is yellow, and the fourth is green. In the entire book, there are only two references to purple or violet and two references to orange; three of these references are flower colors. There are over fifty references each to blue, red, yellow and green. There are over 150 references to the color black.

Most of the Tualárach have blue eyes. The only allusions to blue worn as a garment is in the "blue" of the Commander or the blue of Niton, the Resurrected Son, known to us as Mithras. Red is a more prominent color. Kileen's hair is referred to as "the color of blood"; red is the color of the common soldier. LiHara often wears red as the color of the Matron Goddess. Red, being the color of blood, is more often depicted as a color of conflict rather than as a color of life. Yellow, gold and saffron are worn as colors of the goddess and as a color of wealth and power as seen in the colors of Alaton, the God of Medicine and Communications whom we know as Hermes, and Kaelistos, the Father God of Heaven, Zeus. Yet, the most strong reference is to the color green. For many of the Mediterranean peoples and the early Celts, green was the color of death and the underworld. Devoros who is known in common myth as Cronos or Saturn claims the color green. To the early Celts, green was a feared color, worn by the Siadhe, or the Fair Folk. Only when it became closely tied to the identity of the Irish, did green become a "lucky" color.

The magus, Faol, is a dark-haired man, thus all his animal shapes are of a dark color. He, Kileen, and her grandmother are the only people in the book with dark eyes. Almost all the trees have green eyes and we hear little of the eye color of the Zelosians. Black is Faol's color, yet in each shape, he has other colors. Faol, the wolf, owns the colors red and silver, the colors of the moon. Bradán's colors are shell and lilac and bone. Verres's color is green for growing things and Fiach's colors are copper and amber. Carria's color is violet, Osar has no color, and Havoc's color is gold.

Blue is the Commander's color, yet we rarely see Korutos in blue until the end of the book when he throws aside his position to marry Kileen and oversee her execution. Blue is Abaedes color, appropriate for the sensate. Red is a foreign color in the Wood; the soldiers are called "beetles" for their flashing red uniforms. Runion and LiHara both wear red in almost every scene. The color is right for them, embroiled as they are in politics and territorial disputes. LiHara is also referred to as wearing saffron with her red, and her hair is yellow as her eyes are blue and her cheeks rouged and her fingernails painted red. Gold and blue are the colors of Korutos's ring and the color of the eagle of the Gallanis emblazoned on his cuirass. Green is Kileen's color, a stigma of death. She also wears white, the color of the goddess without children, just as Bán Eilit wears black, the color of the crone.


Perhaps the greatest level of correspondence is in the plants depicted in the book. Each Tree Clan has a main color and several plants that they use and are known for. Each Animal Clan is beholden to a Tree Clan as well. Faol, as a multi-shaper, carries plants and trees for each of his forms.

Faol, the wolf, is tied to the holly tree, the briar rose, and the nettle, all of which have thorns or needles or spines. The chalice that Lonrach presents to Kileen has a rim decorated by briar. Wolves are also tied to the Holly Clan, referred to as the Tír Tinní, or "the people of pain", another reference to their prickly nature. They make cloth from nettles, a common practice until flax was introduced from the south. As a domestic counterpart for the Nava story, flax is subsituted for nettles.

Faol, the hound, is killed under a pomegrante tree. This tree is the domestic subsitute for the Rowan, another witch tree tied closely to the queen of the otherworld, St. Brigid of the Fire. Korutos refers to himself as like a pomegranate tree that has poor roots and produces no fruit. In this reference, he likens himself to Hades, wealthy, yet cast down among his brothers to a world not preferred by Zeus nor Poseidon. The Rowan is closely tied to the Lynx people, yet Luaith shows that she is out of step with the main direction of the book in appearing to Kileen as a deer under a birch tree

Bradán is tied to the hazel tree, and the plants of insight and euphoria: poppy for opium and hops as a subsitute for cannibis, both widely used at an earlier time in European history. There are many references that are not Roman or Anglo-Saxon to hemp/cannibis and mallow/poppy in Gaelic tongues. The rush are another Tree Clan that shows up in this section, yet Luaith does not appear in her heron form, but in the form of the owl. In Nava, poppy is referred to, yet it is of Bán's doing. Later we see a domestic apple subsituted for the Hazel under which Manwen sits in allusion to Adam and Arthur and other garden myths.

Verres is tied to the apple tree and the fruit of the vine used to make fermented drinks. The snake is also tied to the vine and is depicted in the pit over which Verres is suspended. Ash is the other tree for this section, yet there is some confusion as to whether or not the swine family is beholden to the vine, a client of Ash. And here is Luaith again, showing herself not as a cormorant or snake, but as a lynx. Ash is the tree tied to man, an allusion that shows up over and over again in Northern myths. The Ash Mother is offended when Verres shows up for her protection under the guise of a boar and not a man.

In Nava, there is a reference to "imported tamarisk wood". Tamarisk is confused with the Manna Ash of antiquity and also with other trees bled for their gummy saps used for incense. In the Fiach section of the book, the reference is to the potted cypress trees grown on the balcony of the Commander's house. These references are a historical tidbit in that the Romans brought all their trees and plants with them to Britain, often to the demise of the import and the native crops. Their soft cereal wheats rotted in the cold, rainy climate, their fruits trees had to be grown against warm walls or in pots. Nettle linen, which grew on plants in Britain up to ten feet tall was unacceptable to the Romans who grew flax even though the quality of the nettle linen has never been matched. Even today, references in the "seven brothers" kind of tale show the princess spinning shirts out of nettles that look like whips of bramble. Rapunsel was replaced by lettuce, birch beer by wine. The references to these "foreign" or "domesticated" plants are also a comment on the loss of local diversity in the plant kingdom that has been going on since the advent of agriculture.

Fiach, the raven, is represented by his tree, alder, and the plants of calumny and war: tansy and yarrow and marigold. The opposing tree is the hawthorn whose flowers attract flies for polination by smelling faintly of a charnel house. Some people believe the flowers smell like sex. Yet, Luaith does not appear as the owl, the animal associated with the hawthorn in such tales like Bloddwedd, but as a dove who is not a war or carrion bird, but a resurrection symbol.

Carria takes on two forms, an allusion again to the two forms of birch, the silver birch that grows higher up and in colder conditions and the river or downy birch that resembles a poplar without the white bark of the wintergreen smelling silver birch. The bull at Nava is greeted by some of the River Birch just as Kileen is rescued from the River Birch by the Silver. Violets and hyacinths are Carria's flowers, the blue flowers of sorrow and solitude. Yet, at Nava, the people greet Carria with the flowers of war, yarrow and tansy.

Osar is the totem animal and the client of Oak. Although Osar himself is not beholden to any of the Tree Clans, his statue is made of oak wood and the Oak dominate this section of the book. The other tree connected to Osar is the Heather, which is only seen in the maze at An Doras. Luaith, having met her death in the previous section is not here to add another trail to the labyrinth, yet her tree is here in the form of Willow which is connected to the hawk.

Havoc is connected to the Yew. In this last chapter there is no other reference to a symbolic plant or tree.

Domesticated Animals

Dogs - many people call dogs the direct descendents of wolves. Yet, Faol makes several distinctions between hunters and soldiers, or wolves and dogs. Wolves are monogamous, dogs are not. Wolves live in small family groups, dogs do not. Wolves are territorial, dogs are not. Over and over we see indications in the book that the animal domesticated has suffered an "identity crisis". This idea was first presented to me in Paul Shepard's book, Thinking Animals.

Finches - the small, caged nervous birds are a mimicry of LiHara's ladies that she thinks are overly domesticated. Compare LiHara and Sorcha to the giggling girls of LiHara's retinue and the bird, Fiach, with the finches.

Fish - again, the Salmon is compared to the goldfish in LiHara's pond. One is a force battling elements to migrate to the sea and back. The other lives on the handouts of the women in LiHara's court.

Herbivores - Cows have suffered the most from domestication, cats and horses the least. There is not much information available on the wild aurochs of pre-historic Europe, yet the stupidity of modern cows is well documented. A horse will return to the barn if the weather gets bad, cows just keep walking until they hit a fence and then they freeze to death. Even as a domestic, Carria and Verres are little like their modern counterparts.


Faol - Faol is represented by the chalice, reminescent of the sacred grail in Arthur stories. The chalice is common to the "cups" suit in the Tarot and in many, many tales where the initiate is expected to drink for oblivion or enlightenment. In Faol, we hear that Faol has come to the well at Last Farm for years to observe Kileen, and, like Rebecca of Bibical fame, she has offered him water from their well. Faol's chalice is silver and filled with a dark substance that may be blood, another allusion to the moon and moon magic.

Other objects mentioned are a lamp, which is symbolic of Korutos saying over and over that he is bringing light to the darkeness of Anieth. He wears a gold ring with a lapis lazuli set in a winged design. Gold wings also decorate his cuiriass and symbolize the power of the Gallanis. Since Kileen is also Gallanis, the ring is an allusion to her path out of the maze where she must take on "wings".

Bradán's object is a mirror, another magical object used to search the soul. It does not play any role in the first part of the book except for it's subsitute, the pool at the house. The witch uses a cauldron to "cook" the salmon of knowledge, intending to eat his flesh, one of the ways to kill a shapeshifter and not just force him to change form. I've never known a witch not to have a caldron.

In Nava, we see the references to the Four Appetites. Manwen's lyre is an allusion to his being Orpheus who followed his love into the underworld and enchanted Persephone and Hades with his music. There are various allusions to pools for retting, the fish pond, and the lake of Nava all subsitutes for mirrors/caldrons.

Verres's objects, the mantle, the dance, and the boy are references to the second, third, and fourth levels of animal/child development. His token is a hairbrush which shows up with the witch's chest, yet not before. We are introduced to Verres's statues and told of their power to help with tranformation. Also at Nava is Runion's coin, an allusion to wealth and power spat on by the witch.

Fiach's comb shows up in the scene where Kileen combs, binds, and burns his hair. In Nava, Bán Eilit uses her beater comb to stab at Korutos. We see Fiach's forge and witness again Korutos's lamp and the bonfire in which Kileen's statue is burned.

Carria's token is the knife, seen when Korutos throws his winged knife and Carria is stabbed by Hirsh. Kileen wields her needle in this scene. She binds Carria with a red ribbon and he is shot down by arrows. The suit of swords in the Tarot represents air and the justice of the unmerciful.

Osar's token, the dark bowl is never mentioned. The other reference is to stones. The walls of Nava, the stones of the road, and the stone tomb and gate of An Doras, all show up in this chapter where stones and bones abound. Korutos leg is broken symbolizing Osar's power to "break bones".


I must admit, I had fun with the names in this book. With the way they look versus the way they sound and the puns. Here are some of them.

Kileen - an Anglicized version of "Coleen" an Irish name that means "girl". In earlier versions of this book, it was told in first person and the main character had no name to emphasize the way in which she was seen by the others as an object and not as a person. My revenge on the people who could not deal with a no-name was to call her "girl". My joke, of course, is that wherever she goes, people die, and so the pun "killing".

Faol - pronounced something like "feel", Irish for "wolf". Looks like foul.
Havoc - Anglo-Saxon for hawk, obvious connotations to havoc as in chaos.
Bleid - pronouced "blade" or "bleed" both nice puns, Welsh for "wolf".

LiHara - a pun for harridan or hag.
Korutos - a play on the word "corruption".
Runion - a play on the word "ruin".
Hav - a pun on the words "have" or "half"
Manwen - a Gaelic pun, since the "wen" ending is feminine.
Sorcha - looks a little like "scorch".
Gallanis - a Romano-French pun for rooster.

Weather and Geography

The weather gets worse as the story progresses until the end.

Faol - Dark and moonlight, misty morning. Rivers and hedgerows as paths or obstacles to paths.
Bradán - Sunshine and wind. Pools and lakes.
Verres - Sunshine.
Fiach - Rain, wind.
Carria - Mists, rain.
Osar - Ice.

Symbolic Activities

Throughout the book, Kileen is participating in making a dress. The first part of the book is involved with harvesting the flax, the next with retting the flax, the next with spinning, the next with weaving, and, in Carria, she makes and wears her "wedding gown" which turns out to be a shroud in Havoc. Each of these tasks corresponds to the animal of the section.

The greater signifigance of these tasks are in the form of the story: cutting the stems, taking out the pith (meaning), spinning out the tale, weaving the threads together and, finally, making up the garment.


Tam is burned in the first section. This alludes to the fate of shapeshifters in the wood who must be burned to be killed. It also alludes to Kileen's ultimate fate. It corresponds to the Holly who talk about being "the people of pain" and the Cuilinn who calls himself "the Burning One".

In the next section, Hav is drowned. There are many, many references to drowning in this section, both as a way to simulated death and rebirth and as a way to dive below the surface of the world to understand its secrets. Hav is referred to over and over as being a drunkard. It is appropriate that he should drown.

In Verres's section, Sorcha is poisoned. The Ash rule this section with their favorite means of killing being with poison. Sorcha, in representing the oral trap, meets her death through injesting one of her tidbits that give her so much comfort. Verres is not allowed to eat or drink during his imprisonment by the Ash. His last words to Kileen in this section are about going home to eat.

ext, Manwen is killed by strangulation. He has tried to please opposing parties and is "strangled" between their politics. Korutos is also strangled by Fiach who only lets him go when he responds to Kileen's needing him. Runion had worn the braid of Kileen's hair so we get the impression that he should have died here as a representative of the anal trap of development. Yet it is Manwen and the verbal that is strangled. Over and over in this section people try to say things and find that they cannot.

LiHara dies in the arena, stabbed by the broken fence. Korutos also has thown his knife to try to save or kill Kileen, we are not quite sure. Carria's song is full of tines, a word that describes the point of an antler and is a word that means "sorrow" or "grief". Finally, Carria is shot down by a rain of arrows and stabbed by the other stag, Hirsh. As the anal representative, LiHara's death had to be met with violence and blood in a dispute over territory.

union was to have died again in Osar's section, probably by bludgeoning. Instead, he kills the witch with one of his arrows with which he shot down Kileen thereby "closing the circle" as the Alder say.

Korutos was to die, crucified upside-down in a living tree a little bit at a time as the Tree Clans cut off pieces of him. The fate of crucified kings is much, much more grisly than is depicted in the white-washed Jesus story. More often than not, they died of a combination of gangrene and blood poisoning, sometimes taking weeks to die. Havoc deprives Korutos of this death. We do not know if he bleeds to death when the Oak break his leg or if Osar does him in or if the Rowan poisoned him. We hear though that Havoc was crucified at An Doras after the Oak let him out of his tomb.

To return to the beginning, Kileen was to have been burned at the stake like Luaith. The end of the book is a little ambiguous, yet it would seem that she takes on a bird form and escapes her fate and closes the circle that began with the burning of Tam's family.

Plot Structure

On an even deeper level, the plot structure is indicative of another level of symbolism. The meta image is that of a whirlpool where the cycles become tighter and tighter until the main character is "spit" out back into the world. It corresponds to the idea of An Doras where the maze of trees pulls the initiate deeper in until the victim is pushed through the gate and forced to view the self or goes into another life.

The Wings of Gallanis is a double spiral where the shift from the past to the future in the mirror stories gives the allusion of whirling more tightly around the theme. The switch is four-four, two-two, two-two, two-two, and then one to one. The chapters go from eight for Faol and Bradán, six for Verres and Fiach, four for Carria and Osar and three for Havoc. This

© 2005, A.R. Stone